The goal of orthodontics is to correct a malocclusion – a bad bite. Teeth may be crowded or crooked or the upper and lower jaws may be out of alignment. Occasionally, even when teeth appear straight, the patient may have a bite which is not even and which may be causing further dental problems.
Malocclusions may be inherited familialy, may be developmental or may be caused by poor oral habits such as thumb sucking or tongue thrusting.
Orthodontic treatment seeks to address any or all of these problems. The goal of orthodontic treatment is not only to create an attractive smile, but to develop a bite which can promote oral health. Straight, uncrowded teeth are a lot easier to keep clean. Crooked, crowded teeth are much more difficult to maintain and can lead to tooth decay and periodontal disease.
Orthodontics utilizes physics to slowly move teeth into the proper position. This is performed by using corrective appliances, including braces and retainers. Brackets are placed on the teeth using bonding technology. Arch wires are then threaded through these brackets . The tension and tightness of these wires determines the individual movement of each tooth. Orthodontics applies constant pressure on each tooth in a desired direction. By making adjustment to the pressure at follow up visits, an orthodontist can control the slow movement of the teeth until the malocclusion is corrected. Generally speaking, orthodontic treatment can last from one to three years or longer depending on the patient's age and severity of the malocclusion. Retainers are often worn to help ensure teeth remain in their new position after braces have been removed.